Dr. Steven Horwitz
2020 American Heart Association and American Red Cross Focused Update for First Aid
"Top Take-Home Messages
First aid providers can use the signs of weakness in the face (eg, droop), arm, or grip on one side of the body, or speech disturbance to identify individuals with a possible stroke and should activate emergency services when this occurs.
After activating emergency services, first aid providers may encourage alert adults experiencing nontraumatic chest pain to chew and swallow 162 to 324 mg of aspirin. This recommendation applies to all adults except for individuals who have an aspirin allergy or individuals who have been advised by a healthcare provider not to take aspirin.
Alert adults and children with suspected hypoglycemia should be given glucose to swallow. If symptoms worsen or do not resolve within 10 minutes, emergency services should be activated.
Tourniquets should be used as soon as available for the treatment of life-threatening extremity bleeding or bleeding that cannot be controlled with direct pressure.
Direct manual pressure, with the use of a hemostatic dressing if available, should be used for the treatment of injuries with life-threatening bleeding not amenable to the use of a tourniquet, or for extremity bleeding until a tourniquet is available.
Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is best, but if this is not an option, transporting the tooth in a solution like Hanks’ Balanced Salt Solution or in plastic wrap to a dental provider increases chances of tooth survival. Tap water should not be used as a transport medium.
For people experiencing exertional hyperthermia or heatstroke, cold-water, whole-body immersion is the most effective technique for rapidly reducing core temperature and should be initiated as soon as possible and continued until a temperature of less than 39°C (102.2°F) is reached or resolution of signs and symptoms of heatstroke occurs. If cold-water, whole-body immersion is not available, other forms of cooling, such as commercially prepared ice packs, cold showers, and fanning, may be reasonable."